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Lecture 1 – Visualizing Cells
• Biology is a contingent science • Evolutionary history important • Evolution is a tinkerer
o Doesn’t suddenly create new things over time o Things already exist and modifies it o Changes a bit through time • No first principles o Messy redundant complicated processes • Mechanisms seem arbitrary
Video 16.1- Neutrophil chase: • Cytoskeleton, motor proteins • Cell communication
o Neutrophil detects bacteria thru cell communication signals o Chases bacteria o Bacteria move to avoid predator o Neutrophil catches up and engulfs via phagocytosis • Endocytosis, vesicles
Video 1.4- Calcium signalling: • Dye is brighter when calcium present • Neurotransmitters trigger opening of ion channels to allow Ca to enter cell
o Ca waves transmit to adjacent cells thru gap junctions for cells to contact each other
• Neurotransmitters, ion channels
Video 20.1- Breast Cancer Cells: • Extracellular matrix • Cell cycle • Cell division
o Normally polarized epithelial circular cells o Cancer cells divide aggressively and uncontrollably o Divide into clumps to form tumors
Fig 1-14a: (Bacteria) E. coli drawing: • Bacteria: No internal membranes
o Only plasma membrane and cell wall o Have flagella to propel themselves around
Fig 1-36: (Eukaryotes-fungi) Yeast electron micrographs: • Yeast is a kingdom of fungi • Internal membranes exist in eukaryotes